Report from the Chair
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UNIVERSITY HEALTH NETWORK

 DIVISION OF GENERAL SURGERY

Dr. R.A. Affifi - Lecturer
Dr. U. Ambus - Associate Professor
Dr. M.S. Cattral - Assistant Professor
Dr. L. Chaikof - Instructor
Dr. P.D. Greig - Professor
Dr. A.W. Hemming - Assistant Professor
Dr. H.S. Himal - Associate Professor
Dr. B. Langer - Professor
Dr. J.C. Marshall - Associate Professor
Dr. R.E. Mathews - Assistant Professor
Dr. D.R. McCready - Associate Professor
Dr. R.K. Reznick - Professor
Dr. L.E. Rotstein - Associate Professor
Dr. O.D. Rotstein - Professor
(Division Head)
Dr. B.R. Taylor - Professor
Dr. H.A.E. Weizel - Associate Professor

 

PUBLICATIONS

Abraham E, Marshall JC: Sepsis and mediator-directed therapy: Re-thinking the target populations. Molecular Medicine Today 1999 January: 5: pp 56-68.

Bohnen JMA, Marshall JC, Fry DE, Johnson SB, Solomkin JS: Clinical and scientific importance of source control in abdominal infections: Summary of a symposium. Canadian Journal of Surgery 1999 April: 42: pp 122-126.

Carroll JC, Heisey RE, Warner E, Goel V, McCready DR: Hereditary breast cancer: Psychosocial issues and family physicians' role. Canadian Family Physician 1999 January: 45: pp 126-132.

Cattral MS, Hemming AW, Greig PD, Rowsell C, Cole E, Donat D, Wright E, Levy GA: Low incidence of rejection after synchronous pancreas kidney (SPK) with neoral. Transplantation Proceedings 1998 August: 30(5): pp 1946.

Cattral MS, Hemming AW, Greig PD, Rowsell C, Cole E, Donat D, Wright E, Levy GA: Outcome of kidney transplant alone (KTA) versus synchronous pancreas kidney transplantation (SPK) in type I diabetics. Transplantation Proceedings 1998 August: 30(5): pp 1938-1939.

Cattral MS, Hemming AW, Wanless IR, Al Ashgar H, Krajden M, Lilly L, Greig PD, Levy GA: Outcome of long-term ribavirin therapy for recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation. Transplantation 1999 May: 67(9): pp 1277-1280.

Ennis M, Pritchard KI, McCready DR, Koo J, Sidlofsky S, Trudeau M, Hood N, Redwood S: Adjuvant treatment and onset of menopause predict weight gain after breast cancer diagnosis. Journal of Clinical Oncology 1999 January: 17(1): pp 120-129.

Evans D, Marshall JC: Gastrointestinal dysfunction in the critically ill patient: Ileus and obstruction. In: Oxford Textbook of Critical Care (Webb AR, Shapiro MJ, Singer M, Suter P, eds). Oxford University Press, Oxford 1999: pp 347-350.

Fan J, Marshall JC, Jimenez M, Shek P, Zagorski JD, Rotstein OD: Alveolar macrophage priming for chemokine expression following hemorrhagic shock: Role in pulmonary inflammation. Journal of Immunology 1998 July: 161: pp 440-447.

Hackam DJ, Christou N, Khaliq Y, Duffy DR, Vaughan D, Marshall JC, Rotstein OD: Bioavailability of oral ciprofloxacin in early post-surgical patients. Archives of Surgery 1998 November: 133: pp 1221-1225.

Hackam DJ, Grinstein S, Rotstein OD: Lipopolysaccharide signalling pathways and their role in the development of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome. In: Cytokines in Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock (Redl H, Schlag G, eds). Berkhauser Verlag, Basel 1998: pp 37-56.

Hackam DJ, Rotstein OD, Sjolin C, Schreiber AD, Trimble WS, Grinstein S: V-Snare dependent secretion is required for phagocytosis. Proceedings, National Academy of Science 1998 September: 95: pp 11691-11699.

Hackam DJ, Rotstein OD, Zhang W-J, Gruenheld S, Gros P, Grinstein S: Host resistance to intracellular infection: Mutation of natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (Nramp1) impairs phagosomal acidification. Journal of Experimental Medicine 1998 July: 188: pp 351-364.

Hanna WM, Kahn HJ, Chapman JAW, Fish EB, Lickley HLA, McCready DR: Pathologic characteristics of breast cancer that predict for local recurrence after lumpectomy alone. Breast Journal 1999 May: 5(2): pp 105-111.

Harmantas A, Tandan VR, Langer B, Scudamore CH, Chung SW: Selective versus total portosystemic shunts in the treatment of variceal hemorrhage in cirrhotic patients: Is there any advantage? Hepatology Research 1999 March: 14: pp 144-153.

Hebert PC, Wells G, Blajchman M, Marshall JC, Martin C, Pagliarello G, Tweeddale M, Schweitzer I, Canadian Critical Care Trials Group: A multicentre randomized controlled clinical trial of transfusion requirements in critical care. New England Journal of Medicine 1999 February: 340: pp 409-417.

Hebert PC, Wells G, Martin C, Tweeddale M, Marshall J, Blajchman M, Pagliarello G, Sandham D, Schweitzer I, Boisvert D, Calder L, Canadian Critical Care Trials Group: Variations in red cell transfusion practice in the intensive care unit: A multicentre cohort study. Critical Care 1999 March: 3: pp 57-63.

Heisey RE, Carroll JC, Warner E, McCready DR, Goel V: Hereditary breast cancer: Identifying and managing BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. Canadian Family Physician 1999 January: 45: pp 114-124.

Hemming AW, Cattral MS, Greig PD, Lilly LB, Ashby P, Levy GA: Domino liver transplantation for familial amyloid polyneuropathy: Optimal use of a scarce resource. Transplantation Proceedings 1999 May: 31: pp 515.

Hemming AW, Greig PD, Langer B: Current surgical management of hepatocellular carcinoma. Advances in Surgery 1999 January: 32: pp 169-192.

Hemming AW, Langer B, Greig PD, Taylor BR, Adams R, Heathcote J: Budd-Chiari syndrome: Shunt or transplant? HPB International 1998 November: 11(2): pp 136-139.

Heyland DK, Cook D, Heule M, Devitt H, Marshall J, Guslits B, Lang J, Jaeschke B, Canadian Critical Care Trials Group: The clinical utility of invasive diagnostic techniques in the setting of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Chest 1999 April: 115: pp 1076-1084.

Himal HS: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. In: The Sages Manual: Fundamentals of Laparoscopy and G.I. Endoscopy (Scott-Conner CEH, ed). Springer-Verlag, New York 1999: pp 485-495.

Himal HS: Role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in early acute biliary pancreatitis. Surgical Endoscopy 1999 January: 13: pp 541.

Liu MF, Ning Q, Pope M, Mosmann T, Liebowitz J, Ding JW, Fung LS, Rotstein O, Gorczynski R, Levy GA: Resistance of naive mice to murine hepatitis virus strain 3 requires development of A-TH1, but not A-TH2 response, whereas pre-existing antibody partially protects against primary infection. In: Coronaviruses and Arteriviruses (Enjuanes A, ed). Plenum Press, New York 1998: pp 415-423.

Marshall JC: Organ failure scoring. In: Oxford Textbook of Critical Care (Webb AR, Shapiro MJ, Singer M, Suter P, eds). Oxford University Press, Oxford 1999: pp 1078-1087.

Marshall JC: The gastrointestinal flora and its alterations in critical illness. Current Opinion in Critical Care 1999 April: 5: pp 119-125.

Marshall JC: Charting the course of critical illness: Prognostication and outcome description in the intensive care unit. Critical Care Medicine 1999 April: 27: pp 676-678.

Marshall JC: The effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in pre-clinical models of infection and acute inflammation. Sepsis 1998 December: 2: pp 213-220.

Marshall JC: An intensivist's dilemma: Support of the splanchnic circulation in critical illness. Critical Care Medicine 1998 October: 26: pp 1637-1638.

Marshall JC: The gut as a potential trigger of exercise-induced inflammatory responses. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 1998 September: 76: pp 479-484.

Marshall JC, Creery DM: Pre-clinical models of sepsis. Sepsis 1998 December: 2: pp 87-197.

Marshall JC, Foster DM, Walker PM, Romaschin AD: Endotoxemia in critical illness: Rapid detection and clinical relevance. In: Sepsis and Organ Dysfunction: From Basics to Clinical Approach (Baue AE, Berlot G, Gullo A, Vincent JL, eds). Springer-Verlag, New York 1999: pp 137-145.

McGilvray ID, Lu Z, Wei AC, Dackiw APB, Marshall JC, Kapus A, Levy G, Rotstein OD: Murine hepatitis virus strain 3 induces the macrophage prothrombinase fgl-2 through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. Journal of Biological Chemistry 1998 November: 273: pp 32222-32227.

McGilvray ID, Rotstein OD: The role of coagulation in systemic inflammation: A review of the experimental evidence. Sepsis 1998 July: 2: pp 199-208.

McGilvray ID, Wei AC, Lu Z, Rotstein OD: MAP-kinase dependent induction of monocytic procoagulant activity by beta2-integrins. Journal of Surgical Research 1998 December: 80: pp 272-279.

Nathens AB, Marshall JC: Selective decontamination of the digestive tract in surgical patients: A systematic review of the evidence. Archives of Surgery 1999 February: 134: pp 170-176.

Nathens AB, Rotstein OD, Jones JJ, Dackiw APB, Gorczynski R: The glutathione depleting agent diethylmaleate prolongs renal allograft survival. Journal of Surgical Research 1998 July: 77: pp 75-79.

Parsons DA, Tracy SE, Handa KA, Greig PD: An update of the Canadian organ replacement register (1998). In: Clinical Transplants 1998 (Cecka M, Terasaki A, eds). UCLA Tissue Typing Laboratory, Los Angeles 1999: pp 97-106.

Regehr G, MacRae H, Reznick RK, Szalay D: Comparing the psychometric properties of checklists and global rating scales for assessing performance on an OSCE-format examination. Academic Medicine 1998 September: 73: pp 993-997.

Reznick RK, Regehr G, Yee G, Rothman AI, Blackmore D, Dauphinee WD: Process-rating forms versus task-specific checklists in an OSCE for medical licensure. Academic Medicine 1998 October: 73(S): pp 97-99.

Rizoli SB, Kapus A, Fan J, Li YH, Marshall JC, Rotstein OD: Immunomodulatory effects of hypertonic resuscitation on the development of lung inflammation following hemorrhagic shock. Journal of Immunology 1998 November: 161: pp 6288-6296.

Romaschin AD, Foster DM, Walker PM, Marshall JC: Let the cells speak: Neutrophils as biologic markers of the inflammatory response. Sepsis 1998 October: 2: pp 119-125.

Romaschin AD, Harris DM, Ribeiro MB, Paice J, Foster DM, Walker PM, Marshall JC: A rapid assay of endotoxin in whole blood using autologous neutrophil dependent chemiluminescence. Journal of Immunological Methods 1998 July: 212: pp 169-185.

Rotstein OD: Antimicrobial agents for the prevention and treatment of abdominal infections: A new generation? American Journal of Surgery 1998 July: 176: pp S80-S83.

Rouzati AH, Taneja R, Marshall JC: Apoptosis (programmed cell death) and the resolution of acute inflammation. In: Sepsis and Organ Dysfunction: From Basics to Clinical Approach (Baue AE, Berlot G, Gullo A, Vincent JL, eds). Springer-Verlag, New York 1999: pp 107-115.

Siminovic M, To T, Theriault M, Langer B: Relation between hospital surgical volume and outcome for pancreatic resection for neoplasm in a publicly funded health care system. Canadian Medical Association Journal 1999 March: 160: pp 643-648.

Smeele LE, Irish JC, Gullane PJ, Neligan P, Brown DH, Rotstein LE: A retrospective comparison of the morbidity and cost of different reconstructive strategies in oral and oropharyngeal carcinoma. Laryngoscope 1999 May: 109: pp 800-804.

Solomkin JS, Dellinger EP, Bohnen JM, Rotstein OD: The role of oral antimicrobials for the management of intra-abdominal infections. New Horizons 1998 July: 6: pp S46-S52.

Stewart AK, Lassam NJ, Quirt IC, Bailey DJ, Rotstein LE, Krajden M, Dessureault S, Gallinger S, Cappe D, Wan Y, Addison CL, Moen RC, Gauldie J, Graham FL: Adenovector-mediated gene delivery of interleukin-2 in metastatic breast cancer and melanoma: Results of a phase one clinical trial. Gene Therapy 1999 April: 6: pp 350-363.

Taylor B: Carcinoma of the pancreas versus chronic pancreatitis: A dilemma with significant consequences. World Journal of Surgery 1999 January: 120: pp 10-17.

Warner E, Heisey RE, Goel V, Carroll JC, McCready DR: Hereditary breast cancer: Risk assessment of patients with a family history of breast cancer. Canadian Family Physician 1999 January: 45: pp 104-112.

Watson RWG, Rotstein OD, Parodo J, Bitar R, Marshall JC: The interleukin-1B converting enzyme (caspase-1) inhibits apoptosis of inflammatory neutrophils through activation of IL-1B. Journal of Immunology 1998 July: 161: pp 957-962.

Wright JR, Whelan TJ, McCready DR, O'Malley FP, Provincial Breast Cancer Disease Site Group: Management of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. Cancer Prevention and Control 1998 December: 2(6): pp 312-319.

 

INVITED VISITS TO OTHER HOSPITALS/UNIVERSITIES

Cattral MS: Kidney Foundation of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, April 1999. Kidney pancreas transplantation.

Cattral MS: Canadian Fellows Workshop, Lake Louise, Alberta, March 1999. Pancreas transplantation update.

Cattral MS: McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, February 1999. Kidney pancreas transplantation.

Cattral MS: International Conference on Tolerance Induction, Breckenridge, Colorado, January 1999. Induction of tolerance with dendritic cells.

Cattral MS: Ontario Provincial Symposium, Rexdale, Ontario, November 1998. Partnerships towards better living.

Cattral MS: Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, Toronto, Ontario, September 1998. Advances in pancreas transplantation.

Greig PD: Canadian Liver Transplant Study Group, Lake Louise, Alberta, March 1999. Effect of medical status on survival following liver transplantation in Canada.

Greig PD: Canadian Transplant Management Advisory Forum, Catalina, Arizona, November 1998. Steroid withdrawal.

Hemming AW: American College of Surgeons, Orlando, Florida, October 1998. Early management of necrotizing pancreatitis.

Himal HS: Society of American Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Surgeons, Cincinatti, Ohio, August 1998. (1) Endoscopic therapy of upper G.I. hemorrhage, (2) Workshop: Endoscopy, (3) Workshop: Laparoscopic surgery, (4) Therapeutic colonoscopy, (5) Laparoscopic surgery.

Langer B: Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, June 1999. Pancreatic cancer surgery: A pilot project in the regionalization of cancer care.

Langer B: Maimonides Medical Center, New York, New York, May 1999. Progress in the management of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Langer B: American College of Surgeons, Orlando, Florida, October 1998. Panel: Ethical issues in access to care.

Langer B: Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, October 1998. Modern management of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Marshall JC: International Shock Congress, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, June 1999. Are SIRS and MODS important entities in the clinical evaluation of patients?

Marshall JC: International Symposium of Intensive Care Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey, May 1999. The gut in critical illness.

Marshall JC: Surgical Infection Society, Seattle, Washington, May 1999. Outcome measures for clinical trials in sepsis.

Marshall JC: International Congress of Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine, Brussels, Belgium, March 1999. (1) Report of the Roundtable Conference on the Immune Response in the Critically Ill, (2) Neutrophils as dynamic markers of systemic inflammation, (3) Surgical management of severe acute pancreatitis, (4) Ongoing challenges of clinical trials in sepsis, (5) Is there a surgeon in the ICU?

Marshall JC: Roundtable Conference on the Immune Response in the Critically Ill, Brussels, Belgium, March 1999. Apoptosis and the immune abnormalities of critical illness.

Marshall JC: Critical Care Advisory, Key West, Florida, March 1999. Do transfusions kill?

Marshall JC: Society of Critical Care Medicine, San Francisco, California, January 1999. (1) Tertiary peritonitis, (2) Lessons from sepsis trials: Putting our knowledge to use: Initiatives of the international sepsis forum, (3) Stress ulcer prophylaxis: Current status, (4) Strategies to prevent MODS/MOF in acute lung injury, (5) We should revise the 1992 definition of sepsis consensus statement, (6) Roundtable: The challenge for clinical trials.

Marshall JC: Vancouver Health Sciences Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia, December 1998. (1) Advances in the management of acute pancreatitis, (2) Why do sepsis trials fail?

Marshall JC: APICE/Organ Failure Academy, Trieste, Italy, November 1998. (1) Neutrophil apoptosis and the resolution of systemic inflammation, (2) Does the MOD score help the doctor, the patient, or both?, (3) Rapid assay of endotoxin in the ICU.

Marshall JC: International Congress on Intensive and Critical Care Medicine, Guayaquil, Ecuador, November 1998. (1) Colloids or crystalloids: Which is better?, (2) Endotoxemia in the critically ill patient, (3) Sepsis and SIRS: New insights, (4) Current prospects of endotoxin-directed therapies, (5) Why have sepsis trials failed?

Marshall JC: Toronto Critical Care Medicine Symposium, Toronto, Ontario, October 1998. (1) Introductory address workshop: Creating a culture of clinical research, (2) Re-thinking the entry criteria for sepsis trials, (3) Can we stage systemic inflammation?

Marshall JC: American College of Surgeons, Orlando, Florida, October 1998. (1) Chair: Infection in the ICU, (2) Antibiotics in acute pancreatitis: The case against.

Marshall JC: Visiting Professor, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, October 1998. From concepts to syndromes to diseases: The challenges of sepsis research.

McCready DR: Community Medical Oncologists of Metropolitan Toronto, Gravenhurst, Ontario, June 1999. Sentinel node mapping in breast cancer and melanoma.

McCready DR: Ottawa Regional Cancer Centre, Ottawa, Ontario, February 1999. Reducing surgical morbidity in early breast cancer: The role of the sentinel lymph node.

McCready DR: Visiting Professor, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia, February 1999. (1) Axillary dissection and the evolving role of sentinel node biopsy, (2) DCIS: Surgical controversies, (3) Imaging for sentinel node biopsy, (4) Management and follow-up of breast cancer and other high risk patients, (5) Management of small breast cancer, (6) Multidisciplinary care of the woman with early stage breast care, including the role of the breast care nurse, (7) Sentinel node biopsy: Tips and techniques.

McCready DR: Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, Toronto, Ontario, September 1998. Surgical management of duct carcinoma in-situ.

Reznick RK: Institute for Medical Education, Berne, Switzerland, June 1999. Performance-based assessment and medical licensure.

Reznick RK: University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California, March 1999. Assessing technical skills: A low-tech solution.

Reznick RK: Surgeons as Educators Course, American College of Surgeons, Atlanta, Georgia, November 1998. Sessions on measurement, testing and medical student/resident failure.

Reznick RK: American College of Surgeons, Orlando, Florida, October 1998. (1) Life after residency: Acquiring, documenting and defending new surgical skills, (2) The clinical competence of medical students: Can we measure it objectively?

Reznick RK: Fred MacLeod Lecturer, Canadian Association of Pediatric Surgeons, Toronto, Ontario, September 1998. Skills commensurate with level of training.

Reznick RK: University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, September 1998. Evaluation of faculty and residents.

Reznick RK: Surgeons as Educators Course, Royal Australasian College of Surgeons, Melbourne, Australia, July 1998. Sessions on measurement, testing and medical student/resident failure.

Rotstein LE: American Head and Neck Society, Palm Desert, California, April 1999. (1) Parathyroid localization: Pre-operative sestamibi scanning versus intra-operative nuclear mapping versus four gland exploration, (2) Panel: Management of the neck.

Rotstein LE: Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, Toronto, Ontario, September 1998. FNA in head and neck masses: The need(le) for clinical/pathology interaction.

Rotstein OD: J. Englebert Dunphhy Lecture, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California, February 1999. Immunomodulation by altering cell volume: Implications for organ injury.

Taylor BR: Ontario Association of General Surgeons, Hamilton, Ontario, November 1998. General surgeons versus the media: Anatomy of a confrontation: A farce in three acts.

Taylor BR: Visiting Professor, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, November 1998. The training of the surgeon: Year 2000 and beyond.

Taylor BR: Southwestern Ontario Surgical Society, London, Ontario, November 1998. The ten best reasons why I'm a better person for having knocked heads against the purple and white.

Taylor BR: Canadian Association of General Surgeons, Toronto, Ontario, September 1998. (1) Training and credentialling for new procedures in general surgery: The University Department's approach, (2) Panelist: Unexpected findings at surgery, (3) Biliary tract disease in the frail elderly.

 

RESEARCH AND INVESTIGATIONS

Senior Investigator's Name Appears in Italics

A case-control study of long-term survivors of breast cancer and their physical and functional well-being. Trudeau M, Blondal J, Lickley HLA, Narod S, McCready DR, Sawka C, Hawker G, Doane F, Rubin L, Miller J, Chiamvimonvat V: National Cancer Institute of Canada ($327,807 1997 - 2000).

A comparison of the inflammatory response following the transfusion of leukodepleted compared to non-leukodepleted, stored red blood cells in critically ill patients. Granton J, Smith T, Bannack B, Marshall J: Bayer Canada Limited/CRCS ($95,000 1997 - 1999).

A comprehensive examination for senior surgical residents: PAME/OSATS. MacRae HM, Regehr G, Reznick RK: Physicians Services Incorporated Foundation ($25,500 1997 - 1998).

A phase II study of multiple dose safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of PMX-622 in patients with severe SIRS and evidence of infection. Marshall JC, Walker PM, Romaschin A, Foster D: Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation ($100,000 1998 - 1999).

A phase III study to determine the efficacy and safety for recombinant human activated protein C in severe sepsis. Marshall JC: Eli Lilly and Company ($80,000 1998 - 1999).

A prospective cohort study of the prognostic effect of body size and related factors in local regional breast cancer. Goodwin PJ, Pritchard KI, McCready DR, Sidlofsky S, Koo J, Toner B, Page P: National Cancer Institute of Canada ($209,165 1995 - 1998).

A randomized controlled trial to assess the need for breast radiation in addition to tamoxifen in women 50 years of age and over with node negative breast cancer. Fyles AW, Manchul LA, McCready DR, Trudeau ME: Ministry of Health ($66,324 1997 - 1999).

A randomized, double-blinded comparative study of the efficacy and safety of intravenous and oral mycophenolate mofetil and azathiprine in combination with cyclosporine and corticosteroids in liver transplantation. Levy GA, Hemming AW, Cattral MS, Greig PD: Roche/Syntex ($1,200,000 1997 - 1999).

Antioxidant therapy for the management and prevention of adult respiratory distress syndrome in rodent and pig models of acute lung injury. Rotstein OD: Defence and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine ($385,000 1996 - 1998).

Assessment of minor surgical skills for family medicine residents. Friedlich M, MacRae H, Reznick RK, Regehr G, Tannenbaum D, Batty H, Oandasan I: Physicians Services Incorporated Foundation ($38,400 1998 - 1999).

Cellular and molecular mechanisms of organ injury. Rotstein OD, Levy GA, Marsden P, Issekutz T: Medical Research Council of Canada ($375,000 1995 - 2000).

Development and evaluation of computer-based versions of the decision board for early breast cancer. Whelan TJ, Gafni M, Sebalt A, Lewis R, Julian J, Reid S, Arnold A, McCready DR, Ryno L, Sanders K: United States Army Medical and Material Command ($448,994 1998 - 2001).

Evaluating the effectiveness of a two-year curriculum in a surgical skills centre: The future of surgical training? Brown M, Hutchison C, Anastakis D, Reznick RK, Regehr G, Herold J: Physicians Services Incorporated Foundation ($82,000 1998 - 2000).

Glycine conjugation of para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA): A new quantitative test of liver function. Hemming AW, Furuka K, Greig PD: Physicians Services Incorporated Foundation ($92,000 1998 - 2000).

Investigation of the chronic effects of insulin delivered portally versus peripherally on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism studies in pancreas transplant recipients. Lewis GF, Cattral MS: Juvenile Diabetes Foundation International ($120,000 1997 - 1998).

MAK 195 F monoclonal antibody to tumor necrosis factor in the treatment of the hyperinflammatory response syndrome. Marshall JC: Knoll Pharmaceutical Limited ($140,000 1995 - 1999).

Molecular medicine: Fluorescence-based methodologies. Marsden PA, Levy GA, Cybulsky M, Rotstein OD: Medical Research Council of Canada ($110,330 1997 - 2000).

Obesity and related factors in breast cancer: A prospective cohort study. Goodwin P, Pritchard K, Trudeau M, McCready DR, Koo J, Diamandis E, Page D: Canadian Breast Cancer Research Initiatives ($156,193 1998 - 2001).

Osteoclast activity in inflammatory arthritis. Heersche JNM, Rotstein OD, Grinstein S, Bogoch E: Arthritis Society ($180,000 1996 - 1999).

Pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls: Associations with breast cancer through genetic polymorphisms. McCready DR, Narod SA, Aronson KJ: Canadian Breast Cancer Foundation ($35,000 1997 - 1998).

Prognostic value of novel pathologic markers in women with lymph node negative breast cancer. Liu FF, Fyles A, Banerjee D, Tsao M, Benchimol S, McCready DR, Youngson B, Manchul L, Trudeau M, Pintilie M, Henry M: Canadian Breast Cancer Research Initiatives ($190,296 1998 - 2001).

Randomized, double-blind, comparative study of the efficacy and safety of intravenous and oral mycophenolate mofetil and azathioprine, each in combination with cyclosporin and corticosteroids in liver transplant recipients. Levy GA, Greig PD, Cattral MS, Hemming AW, Lilly LB: Hoffmann-LaRoche Limited ($1,200,000 1997 - 1998).

Regulation of neutrophil programmed cell death (apoptosis) in clinical and experimental inflammation. Marshall JC: Medical Research Council of Canada ($270,000 1999 - 2002).

Studies of tolerance induction in renal allograft recipients. Cattral MS: Physicians Services Incorporated Foundation ($95,000 1997 - 1999).

Teaching technical skills in oral surgery: Evaluating the utility of basis dexterity training. Caminiti M, Reznick RK, Regehr G, Hamstra S, Brown M: Association of Canadian Medical Colleges ($19,437 1999 - 2000).

Ten-year breast cancer survival: At what cost in human and physical terms?: A case-control study of long-term survivors of breast cancer and their physical and functional well-being. Trudeau ME, Blondal J, Lickley HLA, Hawker G, Rubin L, Narod S, Sawka C, Doane F, Miller J, Chiamvimonvat V, McCready DR: Canadian Breast Cancer Research Initiatives ($118,914 1999 - 2000).

The Canadian sepsis registry: A pilot project. Marshall JC, Christou NV: Bayer Canada Limited ($10,000 1997 - 1998).

The multicentre endotoxin detection in critical illness (MEDIC) study: An evaluation of a novel assay for the detection of endotoxemia in critically ill patients. Marshall JC, Walker PM, Romaschin A, Foster D: Sepsis Incorporated ($700,000 1998 - 1999).

HONOURS RECEIVED

Greig PD: Outstanding Lecturer, Principles of Surgery Series, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, May 1999.

Langer B: Elected First Vice-President, American Surgical Association, April 1999.

Marshall JC: Lister Prize, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, May 1999.

Reznick RK: Distinguished Contribution to Medical Education Award, Canadian Association of Medical Education, February 1999.

Rotstein OD: Anderson Award for Excellence in Education Administration, University of Toronto, July 1998.